COVID-19 Vaccines Defined

vaccine needle image

There are two types of COVID-19 Vaccines - mRNA and Viral Vector

1. Moderna mRNA and Pfizer-BioNTech - Messenger RNA Vaccines

The CDC page 'Understanding mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines' is summarized below.

  • mRNA vaccines are a new type of vaccine to protect against infectious diseases.
  • MRNA vaccines teach our cells how to make a protein, or even just a piece of a protein, that triggers an immune response inside our bodies.
  • The benefit of mRNA vaccines, like all vaccines, is those vaccinated gain protection without ever having to risk the serious consequences of getting sick with COVID-19.
  • Messenger RNA vaccines, also called mRNA vaccines, are some of the first COVID-19 vaccines authorized for use in the United States.
  • The Pfizer-Biontech and Moderna vaccines are made using messenger RNA, or mRNA. Messenger RNA is an instruction set of genetic code used by cells to manufacture the proteins necessary for our cells metabolism and ongoing maintenance. The mRNA payload provided by these vaccines induces our cells to make a protein, the spike protein, used by the SARS-2 virus. The spike protein is important to the virus as it is the means by which it infects our cells. These newly manufactured proteins teach the immune system to recognize the spike protein as a foreign body and threat and develop antibodies to fight it.
mRNA Vaccine image

How COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines Work

  • COVID-19 mRNA vaccines give instructions for our cells to make a piece of the SARS-2 virus called the spike protein. The spike protein is found on the surface of the virus that causes COVID-19. The vaccines are administered in the upper arm. Once the instructions (mRNA) are inside the immune cells, the cells use them to make the spike protein. The protein spikes manufactured then the cell breaks down the instructions and gets rid of them.
  • The protein spikes then migrate to the cells surface. Our immune systems recognize that the protein doesn't belong there and begin building an immune response and making antibodies. Thus the immunity is conferred without the vaccinated person having to be exposed to the actual disease..
  • The cell breaks down and gets rid of the mRNA soon after it is finished using the instructions.
  • EMERGENCY USE AUTHORIZATION for FDA for Moderna COVID-19 vaccine.
  • SIDE EFFECTS OF Moderna mRNA COVID-19 vaccine
  • EMERGENCY USE AUTHORIZATION for FDA for Pfizer-Biotech COVID-19 vaccine.
  • SIDE EFFECTS OF Pfizer-Biontech COVID-19 vaccine

2. Jennsen (J&J) and AstraZenica - Viral Vector Vaccines

  • How the Jennsen (J&J) and AstraZenica vaccines use a Viral Vector approach to instruct human cells to make the SARS-2 spike protein, which then triggers an immune response against the COVID-19 virus. These vaccines deliver an actual virus, a Adenovirus 26, in the case of J&J and a chimpanzee adenovirus in in the case of AstraZeneca. These contain a DNA payload rather than the mRNA payload of the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines. The adenovirus carries a DNA payload containing instructions to code for manufacture of the SARS-2 spike protein by inoculated cells. Once the adenovirus enters cells, they use that code to make spike proteins.
mRNA Vaccine image See New York Times article here
  • After the vaccine is injected the adenoviruses come into contact with the bodies cells and use proteins on their surface to connect, or plug into, the cell. The cell then draws the virus into the cell. Once inside, the adenovirus travels to the cell nucleus, the central cell component where the cell's DNA is stored. The adenovirus pushes its DNA into the nucleus where a gene, for the coronavirus spike protein it carries, is read by the cell and copied into messenger RNA, or mRNA.
  • The mRNA leaves the nucleus, and from here the process is the same as in the mRNA vaccines. The cell's Ribosomes read then mRNA sequence and begin assembling spike proteins based upon those instructions. Some of the spike proteins produced migrate to the cells surface and stick out their protein tips. Some of these proteins break into fragments, which are presented on the cells surface. It is these semi extruded spikes and spike protein fragments that are recognized by the immune system as a threat. The adenovirus carrier also primes the immune system by causing the infected cell to send signals that alert nearby immune cells to its situation.
  • When a vaccinated cell dies, debris from its disintegration, containing spike proteins and other protein fragments, provokes antigen-presenting cells to present fragments of the spikes to Helper T cells, an immune system cell that alerts the rest of the immune system of infection and begins attacking the infected cells and the virus itself.
  • Immune system cells, called B cells, may bump into the coronavirus spikes on the surface of vaccinated cells, or free-floating spike protein fragments. A few of the B cells may be able to lock onto the spike proteins. If these B cells are then activated by helper T cells, they will start to proliferate and pour out antibodies that target the spike protein.
  • Antibodies to the spike proteins can latch onto coronavirus spikes, which are structurally the same and so mark the virus for destruction by macrophages and killer cells. Latching to the spikes also prevents infection by blocking the protein spikes from attaching to other uninfected cells.
  • EMERGENCY USE AUTHORIZATION for FDA for Jannsen (Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 vaccine
  • SIDE EFFECTS OF Jannsen (Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 vaccine
  • EMERGENCY USE AUTHORIZATION for EMA for AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine
  • SIDE EFFECTS OF AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine

Pfizer says vaccine boosters are needed, U.S. federal health agencies scientists disagree. the U.S.Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) issued a joint statement by the FDA and Centers for Disease and Control and Prevention (CDC) saying, Americans who have been fully vaccinated do not need a booster shot at this time. Pfzier announced its COVID vaccine generated $3.5 billion in revenue in the first three months of this year. Pfizer expects Covid vaccine demand for years "...could bolster its revenues for years, the US drugs giant has said." Revenue from the treatment is expected to hit $26bn this year, accounting for more than one third of Pfizer's sales. Perhaps that is the reason for the push for a "topup" vaccination?

Covid-19: How vaccine passports for international travel will work. Lets remember that "Vaccine Passports" are not intended solely for enabling international travel but for control of access to all services used by citizens. To access shops, banks, eductional and other public facities, entertainment venues, public transportation and quite possibly your place of work.

15,472 DEAD 1,509,266 Injuries: European Database of Adverse Drug Reactions for COVID-19 Vaccines.

Dr. Charles Hoffe told Robert F. Kennedy, Jr., on the 'RFK Jr. The Defender Podcast', British Columbia health officials threatened to take his medical license and forbid him from saying anything negative about the COVID vaccine.but being a fully vaccinated person the chances of my getting infected in an indoor setting is extremely low."